Planet Mars

The Red Planet

Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun. The iron oxide prevalent on its surface gives it a reddish appearance. Mars has a thin atmosphere, and surface features such as impact craters, valleys deserts, and polar ice caps.

Martian Environment

Mars has about 15% of Earth's volume and 11% of Earth's mass. Due to Mars being less dense than Earth, it has only about 38% of Earth's gravity. NASA reported finding a volume of water equivalent to the volume of water under Lake Superior under the Utopia Planitia region of Mars.


Due to Mars low atmospheric pressure, liquid water cannot exist on the surface. The number of landforms visible on the surface strongly suggest that liquid water had once flowed on Mars. Martian outflow channels such as Ma'adim Vallis are thought to have been carved by flowing water.

Polar caps

There are two polar caps on mars. They consist of 70% frozen water. During the winter, the polar caps are in complete darkness. When sunlight reaches the polar caps they release CO2

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Image provided by NASA and Unsplash